Several different electronics such as phones, VR equipment, tablets, and electronic watches that could use 3M eBonding solutions.
Countless devices. Countless solutions.

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3M adhesive solutions for consumer electronics

At 3M, we’re known for our tapes, but we’re so much more. We’re a global team by your side from concept to manufacturing. Like you, we have our eye on the future — devices optimized for the IoT, 5G and beyond — and we want to help you navigate it. Whether you’re developing a smartphone, bluetooth speaker, wearable, smart home device, or simply need a spark of inspiration, 3M is here to help with a full range of products. From thin bonding double-sided tapes, adhesive transfer tapes, to foam tapes and liquid adhesives, our market-proven selection of consumer electronics solutions are designed with your needs in mind, so you can keep moving forward.

We understand your design challenges. From impact resistance, to waterproofing and reworkability, we rigorously test our tapes and liquid adhesives and provide the data you need to help predict material behavior. We bring together science and state-of-the-art testing so there’s less time worrying about material capabilities and more time focusing on what your customers desire most — a reliable device with unhindered functionality.


3M electronics adhesives for bonding and assembly challenges

By offering a breadth of tape and liquid adhesive solutions aimed at specific bonding and assembly challenges, your most ambitious design isn’t far off. We’re here to help you connect cutting-edge design cues with reliability and functionality so your device can stand out from the rest.

  • Impact resistance

    Applications: Display bonding, front cover bonding, back cover bonding, battery bonding

  • Water resistance

    Applications: Display bonding, button gaskets, speaker gaskets, camera decoration ring

  • Chemical resistance

    Applications: Front cover bonding, wristbands, FPC bonding

  • Curved and foldable surfaces

    Applications: Front cover bonding, back cover bonding, flexible OLED display bonding

  • Hard-to-bond surfaces

    Applications: Component bonding, speaker gaskets, home buttons, fabric keyboards, accessories

  • Reworkability

    Applications: Battery bonding, front cover bonding, back cover bonding, flexible OLED display bonding, A-cover bonding

  • Heat resistance

    Applications: Display bonding, battery bonding, FPC bonding, component bonding, OLED displays, solder reflow


Icon for 3M's electronics bonding product comparison tool showing a tape roll and liquid adhesive.
From tapes to liquids and everything in between. Find the right 3M bonding solution for you.

Narrow down the list of possible bonding products for your consumer electronics application.

USE COMPARISON TOOL

  • Get data for finite element analysis

    3M has developed Material Data Cards (MDCs) for common 3M pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) for use with many commercially available FEA software applications.

  • Need more technical information?

    Learn more from 3M experts through frequently asked questions, technical data sheets and technical videos.


Resources


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Consumer electronics design challenges. 3M solutions.

Impact resistance

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  • Phone hitting the floor showing the impact resistance of 3M electronics bonding solutions.
    See highlights of 3M bonding solutions for impact resistance

    For many devices, a drop or other type of impact is inevitable. And if there’s anything that your customers want, it’s durability and functionality no matter what kind of rigors life throws its way. Our line of tape and liquid bonding solutions for electronics help provide impact resistance from different kinds of drop, shock and vibration, so devices and components can last longer.

    Solutions and guidance from 3M are intended to provide:
     

    • Devices that hold together and maintain good adhesion
    • Shock absorption that helps prevent components and screens from breaking
    • Ability to identify solutions on a design-by-design basis

    Applications: Display bonding | front cover bonding | back cover bonding | battery bonding

    Devices: Smartphones | smart speakers | smartwatches

  • We approach testing for impact resistance by studying the entire lifespan of our products. We analyze and compare basic material properties and look at how these materials behave in a design.

  • Below you’ll find a table listing 3M bonding solutions for impact resistance. Compare products and find the right solution for your design.

    3M electronics bonding solutions for impact resistance

    • = Good   •• = Better   ••• = Best   •••• = Structural adhesive strength

    *Only available in Asia
    The technical information and data shown on this page should be considered representative or typical only and should not be used for specification purposes. 3M products shown on this website may not be available in all geographic regions or may not be available at this time. Please contact your local sales representative to determine product availability

  • Which test methods should I use to test drop resistance?

    It all depends on your design, the typical usage risk factors and the environmental conditions. For example, if you think your display is more vulnerable in the tensile direction, you may want to use tensile impact test methods. Please see the Impact Test Methods section for more information.

    Which bonding solution should I use to protect my device against a drop?

    Different designs require different bonding solutions. If you are more concerned with helping to keep a screen from breaking and protecting device components, consider choosing a shock absorbing bonding solution such as 3M™ VHB™ Tapes for electronics which is as thin as 150um. If a strong bond is most important, consider a liquid adhesive such as 3M™ Plastic Bonding Adhesive 2665B or 3M™ Scotch-Weld™ PUR Adhesive 2710p. Finally, if an ultra-thin tape at or below 100um is needed, consider testing 3M™ Impact Resistant Adhesive Transfer Tapes 95005 (50um) or 95010 (100um). It is important to note that adhesive thickness helps in drop resistance and helps to prevent the display from cracking.

    What is the relation between peel adhesion force and impact resistance?

    Peel adhesion force is the basic performance of all application related performance. But high peel force does not always lead to high impact resistance. For example, a rigid foam core with a high peel adhesive layer will have low tensile impact resistance. 3M™ VHB™ Tapes have a specially designed shock absorption core, designed to give you industry leading impact resistance performance.


Water resistance

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  • Hand reaching into a pool to grab a phone to show the water resistance of 3M's electronics bonding solutions.

    Whether a device is spilled on in the kitchen or spends its life outdoors, a solid, water-resistant bond is crucial. 3M offers extensive tape and liquid adhesive bonding solutions that are resistant to different amounts of water and water pressure so your design can stand up to the elements.

    Solutions and guidance from 3M are intended to offer:
     

    • Conformability — we offer a wide range of soft and firm materials
    • Better gap filling
    • Tailored recommendations for specific designs

    Applications: Display bonding | button gaskets | speaker gaskets | camera decoration ring

    Devices: Smartphones | wearables | security cameras

  • We understand that tapes and liquid adhesives not only act as a bonding agent, but also as a sealant or gasket. That’s why we work to find even the smallest leak in bonds so we can help protect vital electronic components.

    3M can conduct the following test based on your specific design:

    Water seal and ingress protection, IPXX

    • Simulated device test that helps determine if your device is suitable for continuous immersion under conditions specified by the ingress protection (IP) rating
    • Ability to model narrow bonding areas and identify potential water leaks, helping improve device reliability
    • Results depend on design and application parameters such as substrates, adhesive joint geometry and external stress profiles on the adhesive
  • Below you’ll find a table listing 3M bonding solutions for water resistance. Compare products and find the right solution for your design.

    3M electronics bonding solutions for water resistance

    *Only available in Asia
    The technical information and data shown on this page should be considered representative or typical only and should not be used for specification purposes. 3M products shown on this website may not be available in all geographic regions or may not be available at this time. Please contact your local sales representative to determine product availability.

  • How can I make my device waterproof?

    Waterproof is defined as impermeable indefinitely while, water resistance is impermeable for a specific pressure and time. Our solutions help make your device water resistant. First, it is important to design your device so that there are minimum or no gaps between parts of the housing. Then, it is necessary to select a bonding solution that is soft enough to fill the gaps created by any unmatched surfaces. If the gap is deeper than the thickness of the tape, a thicker tape should be tested. If the gap is too wide or not uniform then consider testing a liquid adhesive. For liquid adhesives, it is important to have no gaps after the liquid adhesive cures. With clamping and ribs to control bond line thickness, there can be air bubbles along the ribs which can result in poor water resistance performance. In particular, special attention needs to be taken for small bond width.

    What is the difference between waterproof and water resistance?

    Waterproof is defined as impermeable indefinitely while, water resistance is impermeable for a specific pressure and time.

    Are all tapes water resistant?

    Water resistance depends on your design. It is important to select a tape that is conformable enough to fill the profile variations of the surface you are trying to bond. Acrylic adhesives typically provide a good seal but thickness is important. Soft chemistries typically provide a better wet out over uneven or hard-to-bond surfaces. Some foams like 3M™ VHB™ Tapes have closed cells that help prevent leakage.

    To look at water resistance, ingress protection ratings are typically used such as:

    • IPX6 – Powerful Water Jets
    • Test duration: 5 minutes per face, repeat 2 times
    • Water volume: 100 liters per minute
    • Pressure: 100 kPa at distance of 3m

    What has greater water-resistant properties, PE foam tapes or acrylic foam tapes?

    3M™ VHB™ Tapes are acrylic foam tapes that are designed to be stronger than PE foam tapes regarding cohesion/bulk strength. VHB tapes are designed to provide better performance in drop or shear related applications. Also, VHB tapes have closed cell foam whereas PE foams typically use open cell foams that could allow water to ingress through cell channels.


Chemical resistance
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  • Woman putting lotion onto their hand to show the chemical resistance of 3M electronics bonding solutions.
    See what 3M™ Chemical-Resistant Adhesive Transfer Tape 96105CR can do

    Each day, devices encounter a range of common chemicals. From the use of household cleaners, lotions and soaps near smart home devices, to skin oils on a smartwatch, bonds need to be tested against a variety of consumer and bodily chemicals to help provide reliability in different environments.

    Solutions from 3M are intended to offer:
     

    • Resistance to sweat, sunscreen, many household cleaners, skin oils, water, cosmetics, etc.
    • A protective, water-resistant seal
    • Ability to resist potential exposures and different amounts of exposure, enabling more design freedom

    Applications: Front cover bonding | wristbands | FPC bonding

    Devices: Wearables | smartphones | medical devices

Icons showing the water, sweat, skin oil, cosmetics, humidity, and cleaner resistance of 3M electronics bonding solutions.
Resistant to many consumer chemicals and more.
  • We understand that the chemical makeups of our adhesives need to be resistant to many common household and bodily chemicals before they reach your device. At 3M, our holistic approach to adhesives — from initial design to manufacturing — allows us to engineer our products for a high level of chemical resistance.

    3M can conduct the following test based on your specific design:

    Peel/shear after chemical exposure

    • Ability to run customized tests for select chemicals with different variables including duration, temperature, frequency, method of exposure and concentration of chemicals
    • Test to prevent swelling, discoloration or dissolving of the bond in order to prevent ingress into the device
    • Better predict if adhesive will maintain mechanical strength

  • Below you’ll find a table listing 3M bonding solutions for chemical resistance. Compare products and find the right solution for your design.

    3M electronics bonding solutions for chemical resistance

    *Only available in Asia
    The technical information and data shown on this page should be considered representative or typical only and should not be used for specification purposes. 3M products shown on this website may not be available in all geographic regions or may not be available at this time. Please contact your local sales representative to determine product availability.

  • When is chemical resistance needed?

    Chemical resistant properties are necessary when a device is exposed for long periods of time to many household chemicals or are regularly in contact with the body. In these circumstances it is important to make sure the materials are not degrading. Chemical exposure will depend on the device type and usage, but it is also important to consider how long a bond is exposed to the environment.

    What common chemicals are tested for chemical resistance?

    Common chemicals include but are not limited to: sweat, skin oils, cosmetics, humidity, solvents and many common household cleaners, etc.

    Which test method should I use to test chemical resistance?

    Test methods may vary depending on product designs, environmental exposure and other factors. However, please refer to 3M Test Method TM-2500, Patent Number WO2016118399A1.


Curved and foldable surfaces

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  • A curved electronics display showing 3M's electronics bonding solutions for curved and foldable surfaces.

    Unleashing the latest designs in consumer electronics is one of your biggest goals. As a bonding solutions provider, we are here to help you succeed. No matter what your vision entails — curved, foldable or more flexible — our range of tapes and liquid adhesives are ready to handle your complex consumer bonding needs.

    Bonding solutions from 3M are intended to provide:

      • Excellent anti-lifting properties and conformability for design flexibility (ex. 2.5D and 3D covers)
      • A good bond for the long-term use of your device
      • Ability to bridge dimensional mismatches
      • A wide range of moduli of liquid adhesives and tapes, including a PSA range from “soft” materials at 50 kPa to the limit of “tacky” PSAs at 200 kPa, to non-tacky films beyond 300 kPa

      Applications: Front cover bonding | back cover bonding | flexible OLED display bonding

      Devices: Smartphones | emerging foldable notebooks | emerging foldable tablets | wearables

    • ASK ABOUT SOLUTIONS FOR COMPLEX SURFACES
  • Understanding how an adhesive is going to behave over time is crucial. The modulus in viscoelastic materials can be tuned to be compatible with your system. Additionally, the thickness of our material provides different levels of performance to meet your needs.

    • Bent panel anti-lifting test example for electronics bonding curved and foldable surfaces.
      Example of bent panel anti-lifting test

      3M can conduct the following tests based on your specific design:

      Shear/tensile dynamic mechanical rheology

        • Ability to predict how an adhesive will perform under multiple deformation frequencies and temperatures depending on its conformability and flexibility
        • Help determine both pre-cured and post-cured mechanical performance for liquid adhesives
      • 180-degree peel creep

        • Ability to simulate stresses over a long period of time to better predict mechanical behavior
        • Allows you to determine if the thickness of your adhesive will perform under the stresses of your application
      • Bent panel anti-lifting

        • Long-term test on a curved aluminum and polycarbonate panel to quantify the amount time before delamination
        • Ability to predict bonding behavior in curved or high-tensile areas of your device

  • Below you’ll find a table listing 3M bonding solutions for curved and foldable surfaces. Compare products and find the right solution for your design.

    3M electronics bonding solutions for curved and foldable surfaces

    *Only available in Asia
    The technical information and data shown on this page should be considered representative or typical only and should not be used for specification purposes. 3M products shown on this website may not be available in all geographic regions or may not be available at this time. Please contact your local sales representative to determine product availability.

  • How do I know if a tape will stick to a curved shape?

    One way to determine if a tape will bond to a curved shape is to check its anti-lifting test performance. It is also important to make sure the tape thickness is high enough to bridge the gap all along the bond line. Other factors like conformability or compressibility can influence the adhesion performance.

    How long do I have to wait to make sure curved parts are well bonded together?

    In general, it is important to make sure enough time is allowed to reach full bond. Time depends on the bonding technology used. How long it takes to bond curved parts will depend on your selected bonding solution. Bonding needs to occur when the adhesive is not under stress during assembly. This can be accomplished by holding, clamping, or fixturing the part for a duration of time up to 72 hours. To determine the optimal bonding time of a particular 3M product, please reference the product technical data sheet for assembly recommendations.

    In a curved bonding application, what stresses should I be concerned about?

    Curved surfaces normally have poor part planarity and face high cleavage. Cleavage, tensile and shear should be considered when bonding to a curved shape. These can be looked at individually, or together, to determine adhesive performance.


Hard-to-bond surfaces

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  • Three different textures shown for 3M's electronics bonding solutions application on hard-to-bond surfaces.
    See what 3M tapes for hard-to-bond surfaces are holding together

    We understand new designs may require an ever-growing list of plastics, metals and other hard-to-bond substrates and that the best option may still be out there. At 3M, we’ve developed tapes and liquid adhesives that provide strong, reliable bonds when different substrates are in demand, so you can have more confidence through every phase of your project.

    3M solutions are intended to offer:
     

    • High initial bond strength to low surface energy substrates
    • A spectrum of chemistries depending on substrates
    • Adhesives designed to forgo the need for primer or surface treatment

    Applications: Component bonding | speaker gaskets | home buttons | fabric keyboards | accessories

    Devices: Smartphones | smart speakers

  • At 3M, we know that not every design will use common substrates. We can test to see if the tapes and liquid adhesives being targeted for your application are compatible with your components, so you can keep moving forward.

    3M can conduct the following test based on your specific design:

    180-degree peel

    • Tests our solutions with your unique substrates, such as high surface energy substrates (steel, aluminum, other metals) and low surface energy substrates (plastics, coatings)
    • Ability to adjust peeling speed, temperature or both, and thickness of material
    • Quick results allow for initial indication and screening for performance

  • Below you’ll find a table listing 3M bonding solutions for hard-to-bond surfaces. Compare products and find the right solution for your design.

    3M electronics bonding solutions for hard-to-bond surfaces

    *Only available in Asia
    The technical information and data shown on this page should be considered representative or typical only and should not be used for specification purposes. 3M products shown on this website may not be available in all geographic regions or may not be available at this time. Please contact your local sales representative to determine product availability.

  • What are the commonly known hard-to-bond substrates?

    Substrates that are commonly known to be difficult to bond include: Foam, Graphite, Rubber, Silicone, Metal Mesh, Painted Surfaces, PET Film Polycarbonate with Coating, Polypropylene, Powder-Coated Surfaces.

    What kind of substrate treatments can be used in electronics applications?

    There are several surface treatments that can be used in electronics applications. In general, these surface treatments do one of two things, they are increasing the surface energy of the substrate or they are eliminating the contamination/providing a homogeneous chemical bonding surface.
    Examples include:

    Corona

    • Dielectric barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure creating oxidation and chain scission
    • Improves wettability; Can clean metals and etch surfaces

    Flame

    • Burning to create oxidation
    • Higher treatment level especially on polyolefins; More stable than Corona treatment
    • Can clean inorganic substrates such as metals
    • Cost effective at high speed/wide widths

    Plasma

    1. Electrical discharge generated at reduced pressure
    2. Wide range of variations; Creates a clean, uniform result
    3. Capital intensive

    Atmospheric-pressure Plasma:

    1. Typically, a helium-based Corona treatment to oxidize the surface
    2. With no sparks, reduces risk of damaging electronic parts

    How do you “activate” a PSA (Pressure Sensitive Adhesive)?

    Achieving proper adhesion of a PSA is done through the following steps:

    • Ensure the substrate is clean. Possible cleaning methods include using Isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/water combination or if necessary, a degreaser could be used first, followed by IPA/water solution.
    • Tapes should experience a minimum pressure of 15 psi. The intent is to ensure that the tape is in contact with all of the surface that needs to be bonded – even in profile gaps.
    • In regard to temperature, typically room temperature is sufficient (typical room temperature 50° - 60°F minimum). Higher temperatures can accelerate wet out but are not required for PSAs. Temperature will not increase final adhesion strength.
    • In regard to time, most PSAs typically require 72 hours to reach full bond. The amount of time needed to reach full bond will depend on the firmness of the PSA. Typically, 50% of the bond strength is obtained after 20 minutes, 75% after 1 hour and 90% after 1 day.
    • Time, temperature, and pressure are the key parameters to achieve the best performance of a PSA. Increasing pressure can allow you to reduce time or temperature, increasing temperature can allow you to reduce time and pressures, etc.


Reworkability

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  • A person holding two pieces of a phone, the face and body, showing the reworkability of 3M's electronics bonding solutions.

    Tossing aside valuable material when you need to rework a component is the last thing you want to do. Spending time and effort removing residue and cleaning the surface isn’t ideal, either. That’s why 3M offers specially developed tapes and liquid adhesives to help improve efficiency. Whether you need to rework, debond or reposition a device component, our tapes and liquid adhesives are here to help.

    Electronics bonding solutions from 3M are intended to:
     

    • Save costs during manufacturing by reusing components
    • Make screen repair and battery replacement easier
    • Help you recover and recycle more components and materials at the end of product life cycle

    Applications: Battery bonding | front cover bonding | back cover bonding | flexible OLED display bonding | A-cover bonding

    Devices: Smartphones | notebooks | tablets | smartwatches | smart speakers

  • At 3M, our tapes and liquid adhesives for consumer electronics do more than just bond. We design products that address reworkability in several ways so your manufacturing process can be more efficient.

    • 3M VHB tape reworkability lab test showing the clean removal and disassembly with 3M electronics bonding solutions.
      See 3M™ VHB™ Tape 5981 outperform in a reworkability lab test

      By demonstrating component disassembly and adhesive clean removal, we can offer:
       

      • A balance in the tradeoff between high-temperature reliability and reworkability
      • Ability to compare different substrates and adhesive strengths, saving costs in time and effort
      • Different reworkability methods based on the needs of your device

       

  • Below you’ll find a table listing 3M bonding solutions for reworkability. Compare products and find the right solution for your design.

    3M electronics bonding solutions for reworkability

    *Only available in Asia
    The technical information and data shown on this page should be considered representative or typical only and should not be used for specification purposes. 3M products shown on this website may not be available in all geographic regions or may not be available at this time. Please contact your local sales representative to determine product availability.

  • What are common methods to rework a tape or liquid adhesive?

    Common methods used to rework a tape or liquid adhesive include: heat-debonding, chemical release, and stretch release.

    When is reworkability needed? Why is reworkability an important property for a tape or liquid adhesive?

    Reworkability is typically needed when bonding parts that may need to be disassembled, for example to change a component during assembly. Disassembly may be necessary when there is a scratch on a frame and the display needs to be removed without breaking it. Reworkability also enables easier repair of devices.

    What is the difference between rework and reposition?

    In general, in the electronics market, reposition is defined as adjusting bonding location during device assembly. This typically takes only seconds or minutes.

    Reworking, sometimes described as debonding, is defined as an open bond enabling the change of components without having to discard the entire assembly, therefore helping to reduce waste. An example of when reworking is needed is to replace a defective or damaged display or scratched metal frame. Reworking can take place for up to three days.

    In the instance of repairing a device, reworkability is needed to enable repairs such as replacing a damaged screen or changing a battery. Timeframe for reworkability for repair can be months or even years.

    Finally, at the device end of life, reworkability helps enable greater recovery and recycling of components and materials used in the device. Timeframe for end of life reworkability is greater than three years.


Heat resistance

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  • A green motherboard for a consumer electronic that shows heat resistance for 3M's eBonding solutions.

    Hot and humid climates shouldn’t ruin your product. Our tapes and liquid adhesives for electronics bonding can help devices remain reliable after bonds are exposed to different kinds of heat, both in short term and long-term cycles, from internal components and external environments.

    Products from 3M are intended to:
     

    • Maintain good bond in extreme environments (UV exposure, humidity)
    • Address heat exposure from device operation (battery, LED lighting, etc.)
    • Resist degradation during component processing

    Applications: Display bonding | battery bonding | FPC bonding | component bonding | OLED displays | solder reflow

    Devices: Smartphones | automotive displays | notebooks | wearables

  • We run tests designed to study bond strength against various amounts of stress and heat so we can better understand and predict material behavior. We can then help you select the appropriate bonding solutions for more reliability when temperatures rise.

    • Example of electronics bonding solutions heat resistance with tensile elongation test and 3M's VHB tapes versus adhesives.
      Tensile elongation tests: Used to compare 3M™ VHB™ Tape’s elongation versus adhesives

      3M can conduct the following tests based on your specific design:

      Shear adhesion failure temperature
       

      • Heat resistance with high amounts of stress for a short period of time without degrading performance
      • Helps determine the relevant temperature that you may see failure in the bonding adhesive and the amount of time before failure

      Tensile elongation
       

      • Material-level test with uniform deformation and variable loading rates
      • Predict bond stress versus applied strain

      Shear/tensile dynamic mechanical rheology
       

      • Small strain modulus test under various dimensions, temperatures and deformation frequencies
      • Predict how an adhesive will perform under different conditions depending on its conformability and flexibility

  • Below you’ll find a table listing 3M bonding solutions for heat resistance. Compare products and find the right solution for your design.

    3M electronics bonding solutions for heat resistance

    *Only available in Asia
    The technical information and data shown on this page should be considered representative or typical only and should not be used for specification purposes. 3M products shown on this website may not be available in all geographic regions or may not be available at this time. Please contact your local sales representative to determine product availability.

  • How can I see tape behavior/modulus with temperature?

    Adhesives and tapes are polymeric materials and unlike metals, are viscoelastic and their properties are frequency and temperature sensitive. This requires advanced testing to create data that describes what the mechanical response will be under differing loads, temperatures, geometries, etc.

    3M is uniquely positioned to characterize these frequency and temperature sensitive materials and provide them in a format compatible with a variety of finite element modeling software. These material models can be used to predict mechanical behavior in a finite element analysis. Conventional mechanical properties, such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, even when obtained at relevant rates and temperatures, do not accurately capture adhesives and tapes behavior. Consequently, 3M has developed Material Data Cards (MDCs) which are available for common 3M materials in a ready to use format for numerous commercially available FEA software applications. Currently, we can offer an MDC for any 3M PSA which is compatible with Abaqus, ANSYS MAPDL, ANSYS Workbench, and LS Dyna.

    What is the modulus, CTE, Tg of 3M’s bonding solutions?

    3M typically publishes this information on the liquid adhesives technical data sheet. You can search our electronics bonding technical data sheet database here. If you are unable to locate the information please contact a 3M technical expert.

    What is the Poisson’s ratio of 3M™ VHB™ Tapes?

    This information can be found on 3M’s PSA material data card which is available here. If you’re unable to find the information you are looking for please contact a 3M technical expert.


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