3M Research Clearinghouse

  • 3M clearing house lab measurement icon
    Lab Measurement

    Research and methodology on how to measure PFAS in environmental samples.

  • 3M clearing house field testing icon
    Field Testing

    Techniques and information on how to obtain environmental samples for PFAS.

  • 3M clearing house treatment and remediation icon
    Treatment & Remediation

    Research and tools for treating PFAS in a range of environmental media.


  • At 3M, we use science to help solve some of the world’s biggest challenges. We know other researchers and regulatory bodies are aiming to solve the same problems, too. This collection of 3M research is part of how we’re supporting communities and officials around the world in better understanding and studying PFAS technology.

    We have shared with the U.S Environmental Agency other 3M research on a wide variety of PFAS topics. The EPA maintains a public docket (AR-226) of PFAS studies by 3M and many other entities. Some information in this docket can be found at regulations.gov. Additional information in the docket may require a Freedom of Information Act request to the Agency.

Lab Measurement

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      Feasibility of Using the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank for Retrospective Exploratory Studies of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids

      By  J.M. Lynch, J.M. Ragland, W.K. Reagen, S.T. Wolf, M.D. Malinsky, M.B. Ellisor, A.J. Moors, R.S. Pugh, J.L. Reiner, 2017

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      Anaerobic Biotransformation of N-Methyl Perfluorobutanesulfonamido Ethanol and N-Ethyl Perfluorooctanesulfonamido Ethanol

      By  C.C. Lange, 2017

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      Spatial and Temporal Trends of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Fish Fillets and Water Collected From Pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River

      By J.L.Newsted, Ryan Holem, G.A. Hohenstein, C.C. Lange, M.E. Ellefson, W.K. Reagen, S.T. Wolf, 2017

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      Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in American Red Cross Adult Blood Donors, 2000- 2015

      By G.W. Olsen, D.C. Mair, C.C. Lange, L.M. Harrington, T.R. Church, C.L. Goldberg, R.M. Herron, Hank Hanna, J.B. Nobiletti, J.A. Rios, W.K. Reagen, C.A. Ley, 2017

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      Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) Conversion From N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-perfluorooctanesulfonamide (EtFOSE) in Male Sprague Dawley Rats After Inhalation Exposure

      By S. Chang, B.T. Mader, K.R. Lindstrom, C.C. Lange, J.A. Hart, T.A. Kestner, J.F. Schulz, D.J. Ehresman, J.L. Butenhoff, 2017

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      Analysis of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Serum and Plasma by Solvent Precipitation-Isotope Dilution-Direct Injection-LC/MS/MS

      By L.M. Harrington, 2017

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      Polyfluorinated Substances in Abiotic Standard Reference Materials

      By J.L. Reiner, A.C. Blaine, C.P. Higgins, Carin Huset, T.M. Jenkins, C.J.A.F.Kwadijk, C.C. Lange, Derek C.G. Muir, W.K. Reagen, Courtney Rich, J.M. Small, M.J.Strynar, J.W. Washington, Hoon Yoo, J.M. Keller, 2013

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      Method and Validation for the Analysis of Perfluorinated Compounds in Water by Per-Sampling Isotope Dilution-Direct Injections-LC/MS/MS

      By S.T. Wolf, W.K. Reagen, 2013

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      Temporal Trends of Perfluoroaklyl Concentrations in American Red Cross Adult Blood Donors. 2000 - 2010

      By G.W. Olsen, C.C. Lange, M.E. Ellefson, D.C. Mair, T.R. Church, C.L. Goldberg, R.M. Herron, Zahra Medhdizadehkashi, J.B. Nobiletti, J.A. Rios, W.K. Reagen, L.R. Zobel, 2012

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      Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Biological Standard Reference Materials

      By J.L. Reiner, S.G. O’Connell, C.M. Butt, S.A. Mabury, J.M. Small, A.O. De Silva, M.J. Strynar, A.B. Lindstrom, W.K. Reagen, M.D. Malinsky, Sandra Schafer, Christiaan J.A.F. Kwadijk, M.M. Schantz, J.M. Keller, 2012

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      Method for the Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) in Water by Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)

      By  S.T. Wolf, W.K. Reagen, 2011

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      Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Human Serum and Milk Standard Reference Materials

      By J.M. Keller, A.M. Calafat, Kayoko Kato, M.E. Ellefson, W.K. Reagen, Mark Strynar, Steven O’Connell, C.M. Butter, S.A. Mabury, Jeff Small, Derek C.G. Muir, S.D. Leigh, M.M. Schantz, 2009

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      Comparison of Extraction and Quantification Methods of Perfluorinated Compounds in Human Plasma, Serum, and Whole Blood

      By W.K. Reagen, M.E. Ellefson, Kurunthachalam Kannan, J.P. Giesy, 2008

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      Aerosol Enrichment of the Surfactant PFO and Mediation of the Water-Air Transport of Gaseous PFOA

      By B.T. Mader, 2008

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      Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorobutyrate in Rats, Mice, Monkeys, and Humans and Relevance to Human Exposure via Drinking Water

      By Shu-Ching Chang, Kaberi Das, D.J. Ehresman, M.E. Ellefson, G.S. Gorman, J.A. Hart, P.E. Noker, Yu-Mei Tan, P.H. Lieder, Christopher Lau, G.W. Olsen, J.L. Butenhoff, 2008

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      An Interlaboratory Study of Perfluorinated Alkyl Compound Levels in Human Plasma

      By M.P. Longnecker, C.S. Smith, G.E. Kissling, J.A. Hoppin, J.L. Buttenhoff, Emily Decker, D.J. Ehresman, M.E. Ellefson, John Flaherty, W.K. Reagen, M.J. Strynar, W.B. Studabaker, 2008

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      Preliminary Evidence of a Decline in Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) Concentrations in American Red Cross Blood Donors

      By G.W. Olsen, D.C. Mair, W.K. Reagen, M.E. Ellefson, D.J. Ehresman, J.L. Buttenhoff, L.R. Zoble, 2007

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      Effect of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate on Mallard and Northern Bobwhite Quail Exposed Chronically via the Diet

      By J.L. Newsted, K.K. Coady, S.A. Beach, J.L. Butenhoff, Sean Gallagher, J.P. Giesy, 2006

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      Pharmacokinetics and Acute Lethality of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to Juvenile Mallard and Northern Bobwhite

      By J.L. Newsted, S.A. Beach, S.P. Gallagher, J.P. Giesy, 2006

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      Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)

      By S.A. Beach, J.L. Newsted, Katie Coady, J.P. Giesy, 2006

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      Quantitative Determination of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Serum and Plasma by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

      By  J.M. Flaherty, P.D. Connolly, E.R. Decker, S.M. Kennedy, M.E. Ellefson, W.K. Reagen, Bogdan Szostek, 2005

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      Analytical Techniques and Method Validation for the Measurement of Selected Semivolatile and Nonvolatile Organofluorchemicals in Air

      By W.K. Reagen, K.R. Lindstrom, K.L. Thompson, J.M. Flaherty, 2004

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      Compound-Specific Quantitative Characterization of Organic Fluorochemicals in Biological Matrices

      By K.J. Hansen, L.A. Clemen, M.E. Ellefson, H.O. Johnson, 2001

    • ETS-4-001.4 Validation of Chromatographic Analytical Methods

    • ETS-4-031.1 Salt and Acid Correction Factors for Fluorochemical Anionic Standards

    • ETS-4-031.1 Attachment A Salt Correction Table and Correction Factor Calculator

    • ETS-4-042.2 Reference Materials

    • ETS-4-043.0 Determining Purity/Concentration (or Other Appropriate Property Value) of Reference Materials

    • ETS-8-016.6 Volatile Organic Compound Analysis for Air Samples Collected in Specially Treated Canisters Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    • ETS-8-044.3 Method of Analysis for the Determination of PFCs in Water by LC-MS-MS Direct Injection Analysis

    • ETS-8-045.1 Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids (PFAAs) via Protein Precipitation of Fish Tissues (Fillet or Whole Body) and Analysis by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    • ETS-8-053.1 Solvent Extraction and Gradient or Isocratic LC/MS/MS Analysis of Soils for C4C12 Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids, and Perfluorobutane Sulfonate, Perfluorohexane Sulfonate, Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonamide (FOSA): Quantification Using Stable Isotope Labeled Internal Standards

    • ETS-8-059.0 Analysis of Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) Using Sorbent Tubes and Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    • ETS-8-067.0 Analysis of Organic Compounds in Solvent Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    • ETS-8-105.1 Extraction and Analysis of Organic Compounds from Occupational Safety and Health Administration Versatile Sampler (OVS) Tubes Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    • ETS-8-154.4 Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds In Water By Solid Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    • ETS-8-182.2 Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Purge and Trap Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry Using EPA Method 8260C

    • ETS-8-190.3 Canister Cleaning and Certification

    • ETS-8-196.4 Gas Standard Preparation

    • ETS-8-230.3 Determination of Fluorochemicals via Protein Precipitation in Serum and Plasma by Large Volume Injection High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Field Testing

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      Modeled Comparisons of Health Risks Posed by Fluorinated Solvents in Workplace Spill Scenario

      By M. Jayjock, P.W. Logan, B.T. Mader, J. Owens, J.S. Eldridge, M. Costello, M. Morken, P, Lieder, 2010

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      Evaluation of C4F8O as an Alternative Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Chamber Clean Chemistry

      By L. Pruette, S. Karecki, R. Reid, L. Tousignant, W.K. Reagen, S. Kesari, L. Zazzera, 1999

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      Fourier Transform Infrared Method Validation at a Carbon Bed Solvent Recovery Unit for Four Gaseous Hydrocarbons

      By W.K. Reagen, B.D. Wight, D.J. Krueger, G.M. Plummer, 1999

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      Protocol for FTIR Measurements of Fluorinated Compounds in Semiconductor Process Tool Exhaust

      By W.K. Reagen, 1997

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      Infrared Study of Process Emissions During C3F8/02 Plasma Cleaning of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Chambers

      By Larry Zazzera, W.K. Reagen, Albert Cheng, 1997

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      Comparison of Three Rapid Toxicity Test Procedures: Mircortox, Polytox, and Activated Sludge Respiration Inhibition

      By M.T. Elnabarawy, R.R. Robideau, S.A. Beach, 1988

Treatment & Remediation

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      Reductive Degradation of Perfluoroalkyl Compounds with Aquated Electrons Generated From Iodide Photolysis at 254 nm

      By H. Park, C.D. Vecitis, J. Cheng, N. Dalleska, B.T. Mader, M.R. Hoffman, 2011

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      Sonochemical Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Groundwater: Kinetic Effects of Matrix Inorganics

      By  J. Cheng, C.D. Vecitis, H. Park, B.T. Mader M.R Hoffman, 2010

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      Perfluorinated Surfactant Chain Length Effects on Sonochemical Kinetics

      By  T. Campbell, C.D. Vecitis, B.T. Mader, M.R. Hoffman, 2009

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      Treatment Technologies for Aqueous Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)

      By C.D. Vecitis, H. Park, J. Cheng, B.T. Mader, M.R. Hoffmann, 2009

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      Reductive Defluorination of Aqueous Perfluorinated Alkyl Surfactants: Effect of Ionic Headgroup and Chain Length

      By H. Park, C.D. Vecitis, J. Cheng, B.T. Mader, M.R. Hoffman, 2009

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      Sonochemical Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Landfill Groundwater: Environmental Matrix Effects

      By J. Cheng, C.D. Vecitis, H. Park, B.T. Mader, M.R. Hoffman, 2008

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      Kinetics and Mechanism of the Sonolytic Conversion of the Aqueous Perfluorinated Surfactants, Perfluooctanoate (PFOA), and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) into Inorganic Products

      By C.D. Vecitis, H. Park, J. Cheng, B.T. Mader, M.R. Hoffman, 2008